Cervical swabs for Chlamydia culture were collected from 638 unselected women attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic with a fresh complaint. Chlamydia were isolated from 76 (12 per cent.) of the women. When the results were related to the patients' diagnoses, Chlamydia were present in 44 per cent. of women with gonorrhoea and in 22 per cent. of women who were contacts of men with nonspecific urethritis (women who may be regarded as having non-specific genital infection). Chlamydia were uncommon in women with no evidence of genital infection. Significant correlations were found between the presence of Chlamydia and cervical erosion, cervical cytological inflammatory change, and absence of symptoms. Isolates were obtained more frequently from women with non-specific genital infection who were primary contacts than from women who were secondary contacts. These findings support the concept that Chlamydia are pathogens in the genital tract and are sexually transmitted.
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