The possible role of Chlamydia trachomatis in non-acute prostatitis was investigated by cultural and serological techniques in a study of 53 adult males. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urethra of only one of the 53 patients and from none of the 28 specimens of prostatic fluid from the same patients. By means of a modified microimmunofluorescent test, serum chlamydial IgG antibodies at a titre of 1/64 or greater, or IgM antibodies at a titre of 1/8 or greater, or both were detected in six of the patients, suggesting a recent or current chlamydial infection, while IgG or IgA antibodies at a titre of 1/8 or greater were detected in the specimens of prostatic fluid from two of the 28 men studied. In the seven patients with evidence of chlamydial infection, as well as in a further 13 of the 53 patients studied, the presenting symptoms suggested non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) rather than prostatitis. Thus in this study C. trachomatis would appear to play a minor aetiological role, if any, in non-acute prostatitis.
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