In two cases of conjunctivitis in neonates Branhamella (Neisseria) catarrhalis was identified as the causative organism. A misdiagnosis of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum would have been made in both cases if the diagnosis had been based on morphological grounds alone. Thus, full identification of the pathogen in cases of neonatal conjunctivitis is important to avoid the medical and social consequences of a misdiagnosis of gonorrhoea.
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