The prevalence of chlamydial infection of the urethra was studied in 172 consecutive male patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Teheran. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in 8.8% of the patients with a valid culture result. Of the five isolates serotyped, two were serotype E and three were serotypes G, H, and K. Type-specific antibodies against C trachomatis serotypes D to K were found in 16% of patients, and IgM, indicating current infection, was detected in 12%. Type-specific antibodies against serotypes A to C (trachoma agent) were detected in 5.4%. The low chlamydial isolation rate may have been due to the inclusion of a large number of patients with a mild or trivial urethritis or a history of previous treatment with antichlamydial drugs. The results indicate that in Iran where trachoma is still endemic, chlamydial infection of the urethra does occur in the urban population and is caused by serotypes D to K.
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