Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis is a difficult condition to diagnose accurately either by symptoms and signs or by investigations. Four groups of patients were assessed for the number of leucocytes and the presence of pathogens in expressed prostatic secretions before and after treatment with co-trimoxazole two tablets twice daily for three months. The pretreatment findings suggest that the upper limit of normal for the number of leucocytes in expressed prostatic secretions is about five per microscope field (X 40 magnification) and that for the cell count about 0.5 X 10(9)/l using the method described. Increased microscopical cell estimations and cell counts in the expressed prostatic secretions of patients with symptoms of prostatitis and those with recurrent non-specific urethritis seem to indicate the presence of prostatitis.
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