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  1. Another enemy, the homophobia.

    The International AIDS Society (IAS) nowadays expresses its deep concern about continuing inflammatory and homophobic statements by political leaders from different countries, and urges national and international leaders to reject homophobia and to take affirmative steps to reduce its impact on HIV. One of the many lessons learned in the IAS more than 20 years of leadership in HIV/AIDS, is that well-designed and appropriately targeted programs, implemented with the support of public health and political leadership, can effectively reduce HIV transmission in communities most at risk for HIV, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM). A report issued at the end of 2011, led by some researchers in Cuba provides solid evidence that HIV among MSM continues to be widespread, and in many cases, is exacerbated by stigma, criminalization and the lack of appropriate services. The study indicates that even in countries with low HIV prevalence in the general population, the epidemic among MSM is raging. According to UNAIDS, fewer than one in 20 MSM around the world has access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care and even fewer in low- income settings. Compared to the HIV teuntries, reducing the social exclusion of gay and MSM communities through the promotion and protection of their human rights (including sexual rights and the right to health) is not only consistent with, but a prerequisite to, good public health. Once discriminatory policies are abolished and stigma and discrimination are confronted, country-based programs can be put in place to encourage gay men and MSM to stay free of HIV-infection, thus supporting national goals of reducing HIV burden. However, efforts to replicate these successful strategies in more countries are hampered by recent homophobic statements made by political leaders from some countries. Comments from these leaders, and other politicians who call for the arrest, detention, and even killing of homosexuals, are reprehensible. Despite its much heralded success in promoting a public health response to HIV, Uganda continues to cling to a colonial-era sodomy law that punishes homosexual conduct with life imprisonment. And, Uganda is by no means the exception. Worldwide, more than 85 countries criminalize consensual homosexual conduct. Such laws give governments a pretext to invade people's private lives and deny them essential hosting rates of 63- 85 percent seen among MSM in Australia, Europe, and North America, rates among MSM in much of Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe are often under 20 percent. As it has been demonstrated in many different human rights: to live in peace and in health. Homophobia, whether propagated by government leaders, enforced by outdated laws, or perpetuated through stigma and discrimination, continues to fuel this epidemic, and should therefore be the number one enemy of those who are serious about ending this global tragedy. In our country, Cuba, the leaders are fighting against this, but we have to do more to help these persons.

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  2. Other enemy that besieges us

    Lymphogranuloma venereum was described first by Wallace in 1833 and again for Durand, Nicolas, and Favre in 1913. Climatic bubo is an infection of sexual transmission caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The first symptoms begin to appear from 3 to 12 days after the contagion and they appear like a painless blister, that becomes an ulcer, that can happen inadvertent and they can be confused with syphilis. The lymph nodes of the groin increase in size and they is sensitized by touch. Ulcers are coming along to destroy the internal and external tissue, with loss of pus and blood. The destructive nature of the lymphogranuloma also increments the risk of secondary infection for other pathogenic microbes. Our society knows a lot about the HIV, but many times we neglected other diseases than although they are not so dangerous like the HIV, they cause damage and affect our young people. If we know our enemies we will be able to combat them better.

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