OBJECTIVE--To determine how often Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections are detected in women following completion of a currently recommended treatment regimen and the reason for recurrence. METHODS--A longitudinal follow-up study of 43 initially C trachomatis-positive women for periods of up to two years. RESULTS--C trachomatis was detected in three women, 19, 16 and about four months, respectively after completion of treatment. All specimens from the other 40 women which were taken during visits two to seven, that is periods of three to 700 days after treatment, were chlamydia-negative. CONCLUSION--Although C trachomatis is usually eradicated from the genital tract by conventional treatment, occasionally it may be found again. It is difficult to determine whether detection after treatment is due to persistence or reinfection and further studies are required.
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