Chlamydial and gonococcal reinfection among men: a systematic review of data to evaluate the need for retesting
- Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention and Control Services, San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA
- Correspondence to: M Fung Wellesley College, 21 Wellesley College Road, Unit 4633, Wellesley, MA 02481-0246, USA;
- Accepted 4 December 2006
- Published Online First 13 December 2006
This study aimed to systematically review and describe the evidence on chlamydia and gonorrhoea reinfection among men, and to evaluate the need for retesting recommendations in men. PubMed and STI conference abstract books from January 1995 to October 2006 were searched to identify studies on chlamydia and gonorrhoea reinfection among men using chlamydia and gonorrhoea nucleic acid amplification tests or gonorrhoea culture. Studies were categorised as using either active or passive follow-up methods. The proportions of chlamydial and gonococcal reinfection among men were calculated for each study and summary medians were reported. Repeat chlamydia infection among men had a median reinfection probability of 11.3%. Repeat gonorrhoea infection among men had a median reinfection probability of 7.0%. Studies with active follow-up had moderate rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea reinfection among men, with respective medians of 10.9% and 7.0%. Studies with passive follow-up had higher proportions of both chlamydia and gonorrhoea reinfections among men, with respective medians of 17.4% and 8.5%. Proportions of chlamydia and gonorrhoea reinfection among men were comparable with those among women. Reinfection among men was strongly associated with previous history of sexually transmitted diseases and younger age, and inconsistently associated with risky sexual behaviour. Substantial repeat chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection rates were found in men comparable with those in women. Retesting recommendations in men are appropriate, given the high rate of reinfection. To optimise retesting guidelines, further research to determine effective retesting methods and establish factors associated with reinfection among men is suggested.
- EPT, expedited partner treatment
- NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test
- STI, sexually transmitted infection
Published Online First 13 December 2006
Competing interests: None declared.