Objective: Vaginal colonisation with Lactobacillus species is characteristic of normal vaginal ecology. The absence of vaginal lactobacilli, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-producing isolates, has been associated with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV) and increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Identification of factors associated with vaginal Lactobacillus colonisation may suggest interventions to improve vaginal health.
Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonisation among Kenyan HIV-1 seronegative female sex workers. At monthly follow-up visits, vaginal Lactobacillus cultures were obtained. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine demographic, behavioural and medical correlates of Lactobacillus isolation, including isolation of H2O2-producing strains.
Results: Lactobacillus cultures were obtained from 1020 women who completed a total of 8896 follow-up visits. Vaginal washing, typically with water alone or with soap and water, was associated with an approximately 40% decreased likelihood of Lactobacillus isolation, including isolation of H2O2-producing strains. Recent antibiotic use, excluding metronidazole and treatments for vaginal candidiasis, reduced Lactobacillus isolation by ∼30%. H2O2-producing lactobacilli were significantly less common among women with Trichomonas vaginalis infection and those who were seropositive for herpes simplex virus type 2. In contrast, H2O2-producing lactobacilli were significantly more common among women with concurrent vaginal candidiasis.
Conclusions: Modifiable biological and behavioural factors are associated with Lactobacillus colonisation in African women. Our results suggest intervention strategies to improve vaginal health in women at high risk for HIV-1.
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Funding: This work was supported by US National Institutes of Health (NIH) through grants R01-AI33873, R01-AI52480, R01-AI38518, D43-TW00007 and K23-AI52480, and by Family Health International (subcontract N01-A1-35173-119).
Competing interests: None.
Ethics approval: Ethics approval was provided by the institutional review boards of the University of Washington and the University of Nairobi.
Patient consent: Obtained.
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