Sex Transm Infect 86:148-154 doi:10.1136/sti.2008.035147
  • Behaviour

Prevalence of unsafe sex with one's steady partner either HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status and associated determinants in Cameroon (EVAL ANRS12-116 survey)

  1. the EVAL Study Group
  1. 1INSERM, U912 (SE4S), Marseille, France
  2. 2Université Aix Marseille, IRD, UMR-S912, Marseille, France
  3. 3ORS PACA, Observatoire Régional de la Santé Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur, Marseille, France
  4. 4Socio-anthropological Research Institute (IRSA), Catholic University of Central African States, Yaoundé, Cameroon
  5. 5Ministry of Public Health—Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon
  1. Correspondence to Fabienne Marcellin, INSERM UMR912/ORS PACA, 23 rue Stanislas Torrents, Marseille 13006, France; fabienne.marcellin{at}
  1. Contributors AD and FM worked in collaboration to perform the analyses and write the manuscript. SB participated in the writing of the manuscript. A-DB and CP supervised the recoding of variables for the analyses and participated in the interpretation of results. CA and R-CB revised the manuscript before submission, and complemented it with contextual data, as members of the Socio-anthropological Research Institute of Yaoundé. SK-S participated in the planning of the EVAL survey, and supervised all the research projects in this survey, as a member of the Cameroonian Ministry of Public Health. BS and MPC were involved in the design of the EVAL survey; they chose the main directions for data analysis (research projects, objectives of the analyses) and participated in the interpretation of results.

  • Accepted 4 September 2009
  • Published Online First 16 October 2009


Objective Our study aimed at estimating the prevalence of inconsistent condom use and at identifying its determinants in steady partnerships among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Cameroon.

Methods Analyses were based on data collected during the national cross-sectional multicentre survey EVAL (ANRS 12-116), which was conducted in Cameroon between September 2006 and March 2007 among 3151 adult PLWHA diagnosed HIV-positive for at least 3 months. The study population consisted of the 907 survey participants who reported sexual activity during the previous 3 months, with a steady partner either HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with individuals' report of inconsistent condom use during the previous 3 months.

Results Inconsistent condom use was reported by 35.3% of sexually active PLWHA. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, not receiving antiretroviral therapy (OR (95% CI): 2.28 (1.64 to 3.18)) was independently associated with inconsistent condom use.

Conclusions The prevalence of unsafe sex remains high among sexually active PLWHA in Cameroon. Treatment with antiretroviral therapy is identified as a factor associated with safer sex, which further encourages the continuation of the national policy for increasing access to HIV treatment and care, and underlines the need to develop counselling strategies for all patients.


  • Funding The French National Agency for Research on AIDS and viral hepatitis (ANRS)101, rue de Tolbiac, 75013 Paris—France funded the EVAL survey (ANRS 12-116) research programme and the Cameroonian Ministry of Public Health supported its execution.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by the Cameroonian national ethics comittee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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