Background AIDS related opportunistic illnesses (OIs) have been major causes of morbidity and mortality before and to a lesser extent after the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Studies concerning their magnitude are available from different parts of the world, but are scarce in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine incidence and predictors of AIDS related OIs after initiation of HAART.
Methods A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV patients aged ≥ 14 years who started HAART in Ayder Referral Hospital, Mekelle/Ethiopia, between January 2009 and May 2012. Simple random sampling was utilised to pick 348 participants, whose data was extracted, cleared and analysed using SPSS version 16. OIs determinants and correlations were checked using multivariate binary logistic regression model, Odds-ratio and P-value. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate OI free survival time after HAART.
Results Incidence of HIV related OIs after HAART was 7.5 cases/100 person-years. Oral candidiasis, disseminated tuberculosis, pneumonia and CNS toxoplasmosis were the leading OIs after HAART. Mean CD4+ count at initiation of HAART was 121 ± 81/µl, Viral-load wasn’t documented as it is determined rarely. The median OIs free survival time after HAART was 2 months (1.2–2.9). A bed ridden functional status (OR: 3.8, 1.7–8.4), presence of OIs before HAART (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI 1–6.9), non-adherence to HAART (AOR: 14.6, CI: 5.8–119), and low haemoglobin level were predictors for occurrence of AIDS related OIs after HAART (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 2–22.4).
Conclusion Incidence of AIDS related OIs after HAART was high. A bed ridden functional status, presence of OIs before HAART, non-adherence for HAART and low haemoglobin level were predictors for AIDS related OIs after HAART initiation. Patients with these risk factors need strict follow up to reduce the morbidity and mortality attributed to OIs.
- AIDS related opportunistic illnesses
- opportunistic illnesses after HAART
- opportunistic illnesses in ethiopia