Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the commonest viral opportunistic infections in persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In AIDS patients, progressive loss of immune function, and in particular, loss of cell mediated immunity, permits CMV reactivation and replication. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of seropositivity for CMV IgG and IgM among HIV sero-positive patients in Ilorin, Nigeria
Methodology Sera obtained from 180 HIV sero-positive individuals and 180 HIV sero-negative blood donors participants were assayed for CMV IgG/IgM using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), The CD4 cell counts were also done. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on the risk factors for CMV/HIV co-infection.
Result A total of 169(93.9%) of the HIV sero-positve were CMV IgG positive while, 174(96.7%) of the control were also CMV IgG positive. Among the HIV sero-positive, 20 (11.1%) were CMV IgM antibody positive, while 4(2.2%) of the HIV sero-negative control group were CMV IgM positive. Age of Participants (p = 0.000), number of sexual partners(p = 0.000) and CD4 cell counts(p = 0.000) were significantly related to CMV IgM sero-positivity. However the use of HAART (p = 0.777), history of blood transfusion(p = 0.837) and sex of participants (p = 0.591) were found not to be significantly related to CMV IgM sero-positivity.
Conclusion Cytomegalovirus is hyperendemic among HIV sero-positive and sero-negative individuals in Ilorin. This suggests primarily a horizontal, non sexual route of transmission. There is need for multi-centre studies using more sensitive tests such as CMV DNA PCR in order to establish the prevalence of CMV infection among HIV/AIDS patients.