Background TB and HIV co-epidemic is a major public health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in developing counties. This study was a prospective cohort design to determine the seroprevalence of HIV infection among tuberculosis patients attending TB/Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) centre in a tertiary hospital in Nnewi, Nigeria
Methods TB diagnosis was based on combined evaluations of clinical, radiological and laboratory features of the patients with the protocol established by the National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTBCP). Laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection was based on rapid HIV test kits according to the national HIV testing algorithm.
Results Of the 1356 tuberculosis patients tested, 404/1356 (29.9%) were positive to the HIV antibodies. The prevalence was higher in females (15.6%) compared to males (14.2%). The prevalence of HIV in 49 years of age or less population was 15.6 times (28.0%) higher compared to 50 years and older (1.8%). 823 out of 1356 (60.6%) were Smear Positive TB (SPTB). Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis (EPTB) 89/404 (22%) and Smear Negative TB (SNTB) 326/404 (58.7%) were frequently associated with HIV/TB co-infection.
Conclusion Our results indicate that the prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection in Nnewi, Nigeria deserves special attention, screening of HIV among TB populations should be performed as this would assist in the treatment of both diseases.