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P3.235 Global Ecological Study of HIV and HSV-2 Prevalence
  1. S P Kouyoumjian1,
  2. G R Mumtaz1,
  3. P Vickerman2,
  4. L J Abu-Raddad1,3,4
  1. 1Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar, Qatar Foundation, Education City, Doha, Qatar
  2. 2London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  3. 3Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY, United States
  4. 4Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States

Abstract

Background HIV and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) are infections transmitted predominantly through sexual intercourse. We explored the ecological association between the prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 among human populations through a global review.

Methods We conducted a global systematic literature review of HIV and HSV-2 prevalence following the PRISMA guidelines. Sources of data used were Medline (PubMed) and Embase databases, and several country-level reports. No language, country, or year limitations were imposed. We included any publication with a serological measurement of HIV and HSV-2 prevalence in the same study population.

Results A total of 2,927 records were screened. Based on preliminary descriptive analysis, we found that HIV prevalence increased steadily with HSV-2 prevalence in all populations where the dominant mode of transmission was sexual. HSV-2 prevalence was consistently larger than HIV prevalence. Overall, among high-risk populations, both infections prevalence was high. Among general population groups, HIV prevalence varied across settings, but was correlated with HSV-2 prevalence, which also varied widely. Though HIV and HSV-2 prevalence levels were correlated across populations, there were settings with very low HIV prevalence regardless of HSV-2 prevalence. For children and injecting drug users where the dominant mode of HIV transmission was not sexual, there was no apparent ecological association between the two infections.

Conclusions Our findings support a strong ecological association between HIV and HSV-2 prevalence in all populations where the dominant mode of HIV transmission is sexual. Sexual networks conducive of HSV-2 transmission appear to be also conducive of HIV transmission. Further analytical work is needed to quantify the ecological association between the two infections, to determine whether HSV-2 could be predictive of HIV epidemic potential, and to assess whether there is a threshold of HSV-2 prevalence necessary for a sexual network to be sustainable for HIV transmission besides HSV-2 transmission.

  • HIV
  • Review
  • sexually transmitted infections

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