Background Penile swab sampling is the gold standard when testing for human papilloma virus (HPV) in men. Urine could provide a more convenient sampling material. Therefore we compared the detection and typing of HPV in urine samples and penile swabs using a highly sensitive method.
Methods First void urine and self-obtained penile swabs were collected from 120 men visiting a Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) clinic in South Limburg, The Netherlands. When exclusion criteria were met, the results of 111 men (mean age 29.4 years) were analysed. Broad-spectrum HPV DNA amplification and genotyping were performed using SPF10-DEIA-LiPA25 system (Labo Bio-Medical Products, Rijswijk, The Netherlands). There are 12 high risk HPV types (hrHPV), 5 possible hrHPV types and 8 low risk HPV types (lrHPV) detectable by SPF10LiPA25.
Results HPV DNA was found in 75 (67.6%) men. In 73 men HPV DNA was detected in the penile swab or both samples and in two men HPV DNA was detected only in the urine sample. Sixty-six paired samples were concordant in being HPV positive (n = 30) or negative (n = 36). Eleven of the 30 matching samples were concordant in their genotypes, fourteen pairs were comparable (≥ 1 genotype identical) and five pairs were discordant in genotypes. Three of these discordant and one comparable urine sample contained (possible) high risk types which were not found in the swab. Furthermore, the two positive urines with a negative swab contained (possible) high risk types as well.
Conclusion Urine samples are not comparable to penile swabs in the detection of HPV in men. However, in the urine sample of six men high risk types were found that could not be detected in the penile swab alone. This could be an indication of an additional value of the urine sample aside the penile swab in the detection of HPV in men.
- detection of HPV
- urine samples
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.