Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic is among the greatest health crises ever faced by humanity. Morbidity and mortality in HIV disease is due to immunosuppression leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections (OIs) during the natural course of the disease.
Objective This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and CD4 correlates of OIs among HIV patients attending University of Gondar Hospital ART clinic.
Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted in 360 HIV patients attending the ART clinic during the study period. Current OI status of patients was determined through clinical diagnosis and laboratory investigation. Patient’s CD4 count was determined using flow cytometry technique as per the FACS Calibur standard operating procedure. The data was entered and analysed using SPSS [version 16] statistical soft ware. Logistic regression analysis was done and X2 tests were used as the measure of association. Significance level of P- value less than 0.05 was used.
Results In this study, 360 HIV patients were included, of whom, 216(60%) were females. The majority of patients (42.5%) were 25–34 years old followed by age groups 35 – 44 (34.2%). The overall prevalence of OIs was 79(19.7%). Tuberculosis 35(9.72%) emerged as the most frequent infection to be associated with HIV infection followed by oral candidiasis 18[5%] among the spectrum of OIs observed. CD4 count less than 200/mm3 is found to have strong association with acquisition of OIs (OR = 4.933, P = 0.000). Statistically significant association was also depicted between prevalence of OIs and WHO clinical stage III (OR = 9.418, P = 0.000) and IV (OR = 22.665, P = 0.000).
Conclusion The overall prevalence of OIs is significant (19.7%). Tuberculosis followed by oral candidiasis and diarrhoea were the major OIs encountered by HIV patients. CD4 count less than 200/mm3 and World Health Organization clinical stage III and IV were found to be strongly associated with acquisition of OIs.
- CD4 count
- opportunistic infections