Background Little is known about the presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) associated bacteria in men, but male partners of women with BV have been reported to have a high risk of urethritis. We aimed to examine the role of BV associated bacteria in urine specimens from men with and without non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU).
Methods First-pass urines were collected from 44 men with symptomatic NGU (≥ 5 PMNL/hpf) and 97 asymptomatic men without NGU (< 5 PMNL/hpf). Samples were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct), Mycoplasma genitalium(Mg), Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), U. parvum(Up), HSV 1 and 2, and adenovirus by PCR.
Quantitative PCRs were performed to detect Gardnerella vaginalis, BVAB 2, Eggerthella-like uncultured bacterium, Megasphaeratype 1 , Leptotrichia amnionii, Atopobium vaginae, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Prevotella sp.
Results Ct was detected in 9 (21%) cases with NGU and 1 (1%) control without NGU. Mg was detected in 10 cases (23%) and none of the controls. Corresponding figures were for Uu 4 (9%) and 26 (27%), and Up in 6 (14%) and 25 (26%), respectively. HSV type 1 was found in 2 case samples (5%). Controls were all negative for HSV. Adenovirus was found in 2 NGU samples and none of the controls. In 20 (46%) NGU cases no aetiology was found.
Conclusion G. vaginalis, BVAB-2, Eggerthella, L. amnionii, A. vaginae, S. sanguinegens and Prevotella,but not Megasphaeratype 1, had an increasing bacterial load with increasing total Ureaplasma sp. load in male urine regardless of NGU status or co-infections with known NGU pathogens. None of the BV bacteria were associated with NGU.
Correlation between total Ureaplasma sp. and BV bacterial load in all samples:
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