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Monitoring antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in selected countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region between 2009 and 2012: a retrospective analysis
  1. Manju Bala1,
  2. Monika Kakran1,
  3. Vikram Singh1,
  4. Seema Sood2,
  5. V Ramesh1,
  6. Members of the WHO GASP SEAR Network
  1. 1Apex Regional STD Teaching, Training & Research Centre, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
  2. 2Department of Microbiology, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Manju Bala, Apex Regional STD Teaching, Training & Research Centre, 5th Floor, New OPD Building, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, 110029, India; manjubala_2{at}hotmail.com

Abstract

Objective The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyse the data reported on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in six South-East Asia Region countries from 2009 to 2012 following the revitalisation of the WHO global Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (GASP).

Methods AMR data were generated for 7 antibiotics of 4675 isolates in 18 focal point laboratories using the calibrated dichotomous sensitivity (CDS) or Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods and minimal inhibitory concentration testing by Etest in some of the centres. The results were interpreted using the breakpoints recommended.

Results High-level resistance to traditional antibiotics, penicillin (25% to 100%) and tetracycline (10% to 100%) and the previously recommended ciprofloxacin (38% to 100%) was observed in all the countries. Overall, >90% of less susceptible and resistant isolates to penicillin and ciprofloxacin were identified from 15 laboratories. Decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefpodoxime was reported by nine and eight centres, respectively. Resistance to spectinomycin (0.6% to 10.5%) and azithromycin (<5%) was reported only by three centres. The increasing trends of resistance towards penicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were demonstrated in Bhutan, India, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and no large intercountry variations were evident. Insignificant trends in decreased susceptibility towards ceftriaxone were reported.

Conclusions Expansion of the WHO GASP facilitated enhanced AMR surveillance to meet the ongoing challenges of control of gonococcal AMR. The results highlight that the emergence of decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and resistance to spectinomycin and azithromycin will unavoidably lead to loss of therapeutic options, and a search for new effective agents needs to be initiated to respond to the emergence of resistant isolates.

  • Antibiotic Resistance
  • Surveillance
  • Neisseria Gonorrhoea
  • Syndromic Management

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