Introduction Individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are vulnerable to develop certain malignancies such as Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma and cervical cancer. Cancers may not be very common among the paediatric age group, however it is of significant importance among HIV-infected children. This study evaluates incidence and mortality patterns of the three AIDS-related cancers in the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions.
Methods The study data was accessed from the International Agency for Cancer Research GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Incidence and mortality rates for children aged 0–14 years old using age-specific rates and numbers.
Results African region had the highest number of NHL and KS new cases [38% (6296/16509)] and KS [96% (2081/2162)] respectively while Western Pacific region had 41% (68/165). The regions recorded 18,836 new cases (NHL – 88%, KS -11% and cervical cancer – 0.9%) while the mortality cases followed almost the same pattern. The total number of new cases of NHL for female was 5885, 10624 for the male (P = 0.1668), and that of KS was 963 for female and 1199 for male (P = 0.8757). Africa recorded the highest incidence rates for NHL (1.3/100 000 for female and 2.1/100 000 for male). The region also recorded the highest mortality rates for NHL (0.7/100,000 for female) and 1.0/100,000 for male). The situation was the same with KS with the African region having the highest incidence and mortality rates for both gender.
Conclusions The distribution of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma and cervical cancer followed the pattern of HIV prevalence in the WHO regions. Africa being the most affected region recorded the highest incidence and mortality in children (both HIV-infected and non – infected). There is no doubt that KS is predominantly an African problem while cervical cancer is rare among children despite the HIV epidemic.
Disclosure of interest statement No grants were received in the development of this study.
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