Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis are highly prevalent among pregnant women in many low- and middle-income countries, and have been associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal health outcomes, particularly preterm birth and low birth weight. In a majority of women, these curable genital infections are asymptomatic and therefore remain undiagnosed and untreated in pregnancy because of a lack of suitable diagnostic technologies. Newly available, easy to use and highly accurate point-of-care assays for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis are now available for use in routine clinical settings. A large-scale field trial to evaluate antenatal point-of-care testing and immediate treatment of curable sexually transmitted and genital infections to improve pregnancy outcomes in high-burden low-income settings will start recruitment in Papua New Guinea in early 2016.
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