Introduction This paper aims to link violation of bodily (sexual and reproductive) rights of women with sexual and reproductive morbidities in India and specifically in states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and four select districts from each state namely Kishenganj, Kanpur, Guntur and Bellary.
Methods National Family Health Survey-3 and CHARCA data has been used for this research. Bivariate and multivariate analyses have been done for analysis.
Results More than two-fifths of women in India experiencing sexual violence suffered abnormal genital discharge, 5 percent suffered genital sore or ulcer against 9 percent and 2 percent women respectively who did not experience sexual violence. Women experiencing forced sex/sexual act are three times more likely to have STD (p < 0.01) in India, 5 times more likely to get genital ulcer/sore and 8 times more likely to have STD (p < 0.01) in Karnataka. Genital discharge is the most common morbidity found among women in India who experienced forced sex. Other common morbidities are pain in lower abdomen not related to menses, low back ache, frequent urination and pain during urination. More than one-forth women in Bellary and one-tenth in Kanpur who experienced sexual violence had miscarriages in pregnancy. These morbidities are least prevalent in Guntur, since the experience of sexual violence (‘often’) is far less among women in this district than the other districts.
Conclusion The occurrence of sexual and reproductive morbidities in last twelve months was more prevalent among women experiencing forced sex in India and the select states/districts. The prevalence of these morbidities is least found among women of the southern states since less women in these states experience sexual violence perpetuated by their husbands. Specifically, in the districts, women whose bodily rights were violated experienced more miscarriages than women who did not experience sexual violence.
Disclosure of interest statement Not applicable.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.