Introduction It is estimated that symptomatic carriers of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have a relative risk of 4.8 fold and 3.6 fold, respectively, for the sexual acquisition of HIV. This type of evaluation for asymptomatic urethritis is necessary to reinforce strategies to combat HIV transmission.
Methods We enrolled a total of 115 male patients aged 18 years or older who have been diagnosed with an HIV infection and have no symptoms of urethritis or other sexually transmitted infections. Urine was collected and tested by real-time PCR for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae (Abbott RealTime CT/NG test®). Simultaneous clinical data and blood collection was performed to obtain HIV viral load values and CD4+T lymphocyte counts.
Results Four patients had asymptomatic carrier status of urethritis and were positive for C. trachomatis. The prevalence was 3.47%. Patients who were positive for C. trachomatis urethritis had a lower mean age (p=0.015). After statistical analysis, we observe that age is associated with the time of use of ART (β = positive, R²=0.082, p<0.01) and that the mean age of patients who do not use condoms is higher than those who use condoms in more than or equal to 50% of the relationships (p=0.03). Likewise, the mean age in patients who use condoms in less than 50% of relationships is higher than that of patients who use condoms in more than or equal to 50% of relationships (p=0.04).The status of single men is associated with sexual intercourse with other men or men and women and condom use in more than 50% of relationships (p<0.01). Uncircumcised men are associated with the highest plasma HIV viral load among patients with detectable HIV load when compared to circumcised men (p<0.01).
Conclusion We recommend that, in outpatient practice, the habit of inquiring about history of sexual behaviour to obtain more information about risks and associations with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection, a routine physical examination and complementary tests for the agents should be discarded.