Introduction HCV is the most common virus affecting the world’s 16 million injection drug users (IDUs). It is estimated that close to 3 million IDUs are living with HIV and some studies indicate that over 90% of IDUs infected with HIV are also infected with HCV. The main objective of the study is to determine the correlates of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection among injecting drug users in three states of India.
Methods Data were obtained from a bio-behavioural survey- Integrated Behavioural and Biological Assessment (2009–10) (n=1977) in the high prevalence of HIV states of India among injecting drug users, Manipur, Maharashtra, and Nagaland. The respondent-driven sampling method was used to collect the eligible respondent. Dependent variables for this study was HIV prevalence, HCV prevalence, and HIV/HCV co-infection. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistics regression were used for the analysis.
Results The prevalence of HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection varies from 15 percent to 45 percent among IDUs. It was reported that there was the significant association between HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection and socio-demographic and risky injecting behaviour. Further Multivariate analysis shows that these infections were more probable among IDUs,1–5 years of schooling, widowed/separated/divorced, longer duration of drug use and drawing-up drug solution from a common container. Further, Longer duration between first drug use and first injecting drugs use (AOR=2.1, p<0.05) and draw up drug solution from a common container (AOR=1.6, p<0.10) were more likely to have HIV/HCV co-infection.
Conclusion The study concludes that HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were highly prevalent among IDUs because of their risky injecting behaviour. HIV prevention program should also focus on the prevention of coinfection with HIV/HCV.