Introduction The mucosal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types have been described in the Alphapapillomavirus genus and infect the anogenital epithelium. There are viral groups based on their oncogenic activity as high-risk types, low-risk types and types of undetermined-risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate HPV frequency and co-factors related to cervical cancer in sexually active women from Rio de Janeiro city. This cross-sectional design study was performed at public health institutions from 2014 to 2016.
Methods Clinical samples were collected with a cervical cytobrush and stored at −20°C. After nucleic acid amplification, specific primers of high-risk types (HPV-16,–18,−31/–45) were used. Statistical analysis was applied in 18 socio-demographic variables.
Results This study demonstrated that of the 100 participants, 20% were DNA HPV positive. Of these, 8% were amplified by HPV-18/–45; and 12% were undetermined types. HPV-16 and −31 types were not detected. Comparing the genotypes, 37.5% were predominately over 45 years old, 62.5% of respondents were HPV-18 positive, married and/or of co-habitation matrimonial status and62.5% don´t smoke. All of them don´t use drugs and alcohol, four patients (50%) have monthly income between one to four minimum wages, 37.5% started sexual activity before the age of 17 years and 50% had less than five sexual partners. Twenty five percent of the patients have had multiple infections and were unmarried. The 3% who have had the both types of HPV infection had more than five sexual partners. A highly significant factor associated with HPV infection was who did not use the condom and had an income between one to four minimum wages, both with 87.5%.
Conclusion This epidemiological study showed a strongly association among the presence of DNA HPV types with risk factors in unimmunized women. A large challenge to public health is cancer prevention in populations from developing countries with high risk exposure associated with the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in different geographic regions.
Support: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)/Programa Brasil Sem Miséria; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)