Introduction Opportunistic infections (OIs) are more frequent and severe because of immune-suppression in HIV-infected persons, and are the major clinical manifestation of HIV patients. Cancer is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in people infected with HIV; in fact 30% to 40% will develop a malignancy during their lifetime. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of Opportunistic Infections (OI) and Cancer among the PLWA on ART in eastern of Nepal.
Methods Descriptive cross-sectional research design was used to carry out the study. The PLWA receiving ART residing in eastern Nepal constitute the population of the study. Using convenient sampling technique 75 subjects were selected for study during the period of 15th June 2014 to 30thJuly 2014 of six weeks.
Results Majority of the PLWA (52.65%) were of age group of 35–45 years, Male (62.7%) and Hindu (81.3%). Among the PLWA about 13% were illiterate; 18.7% were farmer, 13.3% house wife, 10.7% were driver and 9.7% were labour. Most of the respondents (60%) were from Sunsari District and 61.3% belongs to rural areas. The common OIs found were Pulmonary Tuberculosis (33.3%), extra Pulmonary TB (14.7%), Oral Thrush (30.7%), fungal infection (22.7%), Herpes Zoster (14.7%) and Hepatitis-C (18.7%); whereas regarding Cancer it was found that 22.7% had Lymphandopathy, 18.7% had Skin Cancer and 2.7% had Kaposi-Sarcoma.
Conclusion It can conclude that the Opportunistic Infections among PLWA were Tuberculosis, Oral Thrush, Fungal infection, Hepatitis-C, and Herpes Zoster; whereas, cancer of Lymphnode, skin cancer and Kaposi-Sarcoma was found among the PLWA receiving ART in eastern Nepal.