Introduction From 1980 to June 2016 the Ministry of Health of Brazil notified 842,710 HIV/AIDS cases; 1 36 945 new cases were notified after 2007 (71,396 in the Southeast region). An increase in the number of individuals aged 15 to 34 years was observed, with a male to female ratio of 2.4:1 and sexual exposure as the major risk factor. At present, 50% of males referred homosexual practice and 9% bisexual; conversely, 96% of females are heterosexual. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are endemic in Brazil; estimated in 2.5 million people. Since HIV and HTLV share routes of virus transmission, coinfection of such virus could occur.
Methods The present study discloses the age and gender of 1,715 HIV-infected individuals of AIDS care services (São Paulo, Brazil) in period from 2010 to 2016, whose blood samples were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz for HTLV infection analysis, and they were divided according to sex in five age-groups (G1=16–25 years, G2=26–30 years, G3=31–40 years, G4=41–50 years, and G5=>50 years). HIV/HTLV positive cases were analysed in each group.
Results The increase of the HIV-infected male of G1 was detected (<10% in 2010 vs. 33% in 2016) as well in patients of G2 (<10% in 2010 vs. 22% in 2016). Among females, although in minor percentages, an increase in HIV infection in patients of 16 to 25 years was detected. Concerning HIV/HTLV coinfection, during the years from 2010 to 2014 all cases were detected in patients over 30 years old, but from 2015 to 2016 three cases of HTLV infection were detected in patients with less than 30 years of age.
Conclusion The increase in the last years in Brazil in the number of HIV infections in the second and third decades of life is of concern, and could be related to unprotected sexual contact and promiscuity after consuming drugs (alcohol, marijuana and others). Although HTLV was more efficiently transmitted by parenteral route, sexual transmission seems to account for the new HTLV infected individuals in Brazil. Surveillance of such viruses is important to properly control these viruses spread.
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