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Male circumcision in Slovenia: results from a national probability sample survey
  1. Irena Klavs (irena.klavs{at}
  1. Institute of Public Health, Slovenia
    1. Francoise F Hamers (francoise.hamers{at}
    1. ECDC, Sweden


      Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of male circumcision and to explore its association with demographic characteristics and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) diagnosis in Slovenia.

      Methods: Data were collected over 1999-2001 from a national probability sample of the general population aged 18-49 years at respondents' homes by a combination of face-to-face interviews and anonymous self-administration of questionnaires. Statistical methods for complex survey data were used to account for stratification, clustered sampling, and weighting.

      Results: Overall, 4.5% (95% confidence interval (CI):3.2-6.5) of Slovenian male citizens reported being circumcised. Major variations in the prevalence of circumcision was observed across religious groups, with 92.4% (95% CI:59.8-99.0) being circumcised among Muslims, 1.7% (95% CI:0.9-3.1) among Roman Catholics, 0% among other religious affiliations (Evangelic, Serbian Orthodox, other), and 7.1% (95% CI:4.4-11.2) among those with no religious affiliation (p<0.001). The prevalence of circumcision did not vary across age groups. We did not find any significant differences in the proportion of circumcised and uncircumcised Slovenian men reporting ever being diagnosed with bacterial STI or viral STI.

      Conclusions: Prevalence of circumcision among Slovenian men is low. We did not find any evidence for association between STI diagnosis and circumcision status, which may be due to the low prevalence of both STI and circumcision in this population as well as a small sample size. In Slovenia where HIV prevalence is <1/1000 citizens and HIV infection is concentrated in men who have sex with men, promoting male circumcision in the general population may not be effective for HIV prevention purposes.

      • Slovenia
      • circumcision
      • sexually transmitted infections
      • survey

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