Objectives: As Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), we examined the efficacy of a commonly used PID antimicrobial in treating M. genitalium upper genital tract infection.
Methods: In the PID Evaluation and Clinical Health study of inpatient versus outpatient treatment, 682 women treated with cefoxitin and doxycycline for clinically suspected PID had stored cervical and endometrial specimens available for analysis. In the current substudy, we compared baseline endometritis, short term treatment failure (continued endometritis and pelvic pain 30 days following treatment), and sequelae among women with and without M. genitalium, identified using PCR.
Results: Endometrial M. genitalium was associated with baseline endometritis (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5 – 6.1). Among women with a positive baseline M. genitalium test, 41% tested positive again 30 days following treatment. Women testing positive, compared to those testing negative for M. genitalium at baseline had an increased risk of short term treatment failure (RR 4.6, 95% CI 1.1 – 20.1). Rates of sequelae, including infertility (22%), recurrent PID (31%), and chronic pelvic pain (42%), were high among women testing positive for endometrial M. genitalium at baseline. There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and recurrent PID, and decreased pregnancy and live birth following M. genitalium infection.
Conclusions: M. genitalium is associated with endometritis and short-term PID treatment failure. Cefoxitin and doxycycline, a CDC recommended PID treatment regimen, is ineffective for the treatment of M. genitalium upper genital tract infection.