Article Text

other Versions

Costs and efficiency of integrating HIV/AIDS services with other health services: a systematic review of evidence and experience
  1. Sedona Sweeney1,
  2. Carol Dayo Obure1,
  3. Claudia B Maier2,
  4. Robert Greener2,
  5. Karl Dehne2,
  6. Anna Vassall1
  1. 1Social and Mathematical Epidemiology Group (SAME), Department of Global Health of Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  2. 2UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Sedona Sweeney, Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, WC1E 7HT, London, UK; sedona.sweeney{at}


Objectives To review the literature on the potential efficiency gains of integrating HIV services with other health services.

Design Systematic literature review. Search of electronic databases, manual searching and snowball sampling. Studies that presented results on cost, efficiency or cost-effectiveness of integrated HIV services were included, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. Evidence was analysed and synthesised through a narrative approach and the quality of studies assessed.

Results Of 666 citations retrieved, 46 were included (35 peer reviewed and 11 from grey literature). A range of integrated HIV services were found to be cost-effective compared with ‘do-nothing’ alternatives, including HIV services integrated into sexual and reproductive health services, integrated tuberculosis/HIV services and HIV services integrated into primary healthcare. The cost of integrated HIV counselling and testing is likely to be lower than that of stand-alone counselling and testing provision; however, evidence is limited on the comparative costs of other services, particularly HIV care and treatment. There is also little known about the most efficient model of integration, the efficiency gain from integration beyond the service level and any economic benefit to HIV service users.

Conclusions In the context of increasing political commitment and previous reviews suggesting a strong public health argument for the integration of HIV services, the authors found the evidence on efficiency broadly supports further efforts to integrate HIV services. However, key evidence gaps remain, and there is an urgent need for further research in this area.

  • Economic analysis
  • cost-effectiveness
  • HIV
  • AIDS
  • Africa
  • health service research

Statistics from


  • Funding UNAIDS.

  • Disclaimer This research was funded by UNAIDS. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official 16 policy or position of UNAIDS.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.