Objectives Gonorrhoea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major public health concerns worldwide. Enhanced AMR surveillance for gonococci is essential globally. In Zimbabwe, very limited gonococcal AMR data were reported. Our aims were to (i) implement quality-assured gonococcal AMR surveillance in Zimbabwe and (ii) investigate gonococcal AMR at five health centres in 2015–2016.
Methods Gonococcal isolates from 104 men with urethral discharge were tested for susceptibility to kanamycin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin using Etest.
Results All isolates (102 possible to test) were susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefixime. The level of resistance (intermediate resistance) to kanamycin and ciprofloxacin was 2.0% (2.0%) and 18.6% (27.5%), respectively. The two kanamycin-resistant isolates (R≥128 mg/L) had a kanamycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of >256 mg/L. The ciprofloxacin resistance ranged from 9.5% to 30.8% in the five sentinel sites. Only 10 (9.6%) of the isolates were tested for susceptibility to azithromycin and 1 (10.0%) was resistant (MIC=4 mg/L).
Conclusions The emergence of multidrug-resistant gonorrhoea internationally is a major public health concern and gonococcal AMR surveillance is crucial globally. In Zimbabwe, gonococcal AMR surveillance has now been implemented and quality assured according to WHO standards. The results of this first surveillance will be used to directly inform revisions of the national treatment guidelines. It is imperative to further strengthen the surveillance of gonococcal AMR, and ideally also treatment failures, in Zimbabwe and most countries in the WHO African region, which requires continuous national and international support, including technical support, and political and financial commitment.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Handling editor Jackie A Cassell
Contributors ASL, assisted by LG, designed the surveillance protocol, performed the initial data analysis and wrote the first draft of manuscript together with MU. AM provided overall coordination during the surveillance. FN, TW and CCM provided technical support during the surveillance. AT, MG-M and FDS performed all the laboratory work. MU provided laboratory training, quality assurance and confirmatory testing. All authors contributed to the finalisation of the manuscript.
Funding The Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO, Geneva.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval The protocol and consent forms were reviewed and approved by the Medical Research Council of Zimbabwe (MRCZ; ref: MRCZ/A/1883).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.