Table 2

Multiple logistic regression assessing the association between inconsistent condom use with regular and casual partners among people living with HIV

CharacteristicInconsistent condom use with regular partner (n=1 655)Inconsistent condom use with casual partner (n=945)
n (%†)AOR‡ (95% CI)n (%†)AOR§ (95% CI)
Sex
 Male891 (38.2)1651 (45.2)1
 Female747 (51.3)1.55 (0.91 to 2.62)240 (53.3)1.71 (1.08 to 2.70)*
 Transgender17 (44.7)1.15 (0.25 to 5.34)54 (35.1)0.83 (0.49 to 1.38)
Living area
 Large town or city954 (48.7)1676 (48.5)1
 Small town442 (37.1)0.69 (0.53 to 0.93)*160 (41.0)0.73 (0.44 to 1.23)
 Rural area258 (38.5)0.60 (0.42 to 0.86)*109 (42.3)0.69 (0.43 to 1.11)
Key populations¶
 Sex worker249 (60.1)1.57 (1.219 to 2.05)**
 Refugee100 (62.9)2.74 (1.709 to 4.44)**73 (76.0)5.15 (2.09 to 12.66)**
 Prisoner64 (57.7)1.61 (0.75 to 3.45)
Physical assault
 No851 (45.6)1
 Yes94 (53.7)57 (1.25 to 1.99)**
Illicit drug use
 Never607 (44.8)1
 Past user213 (43.7)1.26 (0.77 to 2.07)
 Current user125 (62.2)1.90 (1.08 to 3.36)*
Place of HIV diagnosis
 Private hospital234 (45.4)1
 Government hospital or
 VCT centre in a hospital
945 (44.1)0.73 (0.44 to 1.22)
 VCT centre in an NGO345 (37.5)0.63 (0.51 to 90.77)**
 Others††131 (53.25)0.92 (0.44 to 1.90)
Current enrolment in ART
 No376 (53.0)1.40 (1.09 to 1.81)*
 Yes569 (42.7)1
HIV-related literacy‡‡
 Condoms are still needed when the viral load is undetectable1136 (40.9)0.93 (0.65 to 1.33)
 Sexual risk behaviour can lead to a drug resistance type of HIV1180 (41.4)0.91 (0.67 to 1.21)676 (44.5)0.83 (0.59 to 1.18)
 Condoms are still needed if both partners are HIV positive1193 (40.0)0.52 (0.46 to 0.62)***737 (44.8)0.76 (0.66 to 0.89)***
HIV status of the regular partner
 Negative342 (25.9)1
 Positive1 086 (50.6)3.03 (1.92 to 4.80)**
 Unknown227 (63.6)2.76 (1.69 to 4.51)**
Condom availability
 Always or mostly1 172 (35.9)1631 (36.8)1
 Sometimes315 (88.0)12.60 (7.76 to 20.49)***231 (95.9)46.30 (20.51 to 104.51)***
 Never159 (86.9)8.52 (5.24 to 13.8)***82 (93.2)25.71 (9.11 to 72.48)***
  • *p≤0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Percentages are based on row frequencies.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, occupation, non-governmental organisation/community-based organisation membership, income, social support from friends, housing instability, self-rated health, drug and alcohol consumption, children and the desire to have children, time since HIV diagnosis, current enrolment in ART, disclosure of the own HIV status to the partner, sex with someone else and the variables listed within the table.

  • §Adjusted for age, education, non-governmental organisation/community-based organisation membership, social support from family, self-rated health, time since HIV diagnosis, place of HIV diagnosis and the variables listed in the table.

  • ¶Multiple responses were possible. Not belonging to the respective key population functioned as reference category in the regression. All key populations were included in bivariate analysis, but only those categories that were significant or marginally significant (>0.05 but <0.10) in bivariate analysis were presented in table.

  • ††Participants were asked to specify; most frequent answers were ‘abroad’ and ‘mobile VCT’.

  • ‡‡Not knowing the respective fact functioned as reference category.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; ART, antiretroviral therapy; VCT, voluntary counselling and testing.