A total of 113 women thought to have chlamydial infection of the lower genital tract were studied prospectively to evaluate the effect of antibiotic treatment on antibodies to chlamydiae detected by microimmunofluorescence. Of them, 81 were randomly selected for treatment with a two week course of either triple tetracycline or erythromycin stearate, and 32 who had microimmunofluorescent antibodies to, but did not yield cultures for, chlamydiae were used as controls and left untreated. Results for the treated patients showed that 22 (27%) had at least a fourfold fall in the microimmunofluorescent titre, but there was a similar rise in titre in 14 (17%), and the titre remained unaltered in 45 (56%) patients. In the control group 10 (31%) patients had at least a fourfold fall in titre, but there was a similar rise in titre in seven (22%), and it remained unaltered in 15 (47%) patients. The differences between these percentages in treated and untreated patients were not significant.
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