The analysis of the auxotypes and plasmid profiles of 459 non-PPNG strains from Jamaica suggests that strains have been imported to the island. Unlike in many developing countries where strains are differentiated by only a few auxotypes, 13 different auxotypes were identified in the non-PPNG strains. In Jamaica over 10% of the strains were plasmid free and required proline, citrulline, and uracil (PCU-) for growth. These isolates predominate in Canada and are increasingly reported from areas of the United States of America and Europe. The serological analysis of 168 of the non-PPNG strains indicated that most (76%, 128) were from serogroup WII/III. Serogroup WII/III strains comprised 17 serovar combinations with GS and Ph reagents, whereas serogroup WI strains included only four serovars. Unusually, most WI Aedgkih non-PPNG strains were wild type or proline requiring. Strains of serovar Aedg were especially noted (in 93%, 13/14) for carriage of the transfer plasmid. The first 20 PPNG strains isolated in Jamaica proved to have multiple origins as they had eight variations of auxotype, serovar, and plasmid content. Most (60%, 12/20) of those isolated were typed as serogroup WI, and 10 of these isolates were serovar Aedgkih. Although most (70%, 14/20) PPNG strains harboured African type plasmids with or without transfer plasmids, six also carried Asian type plasmids (with the transfer plasmid).
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