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Changing patterns of HIV related ocular disease.
  1. S Rauz,
  2. P I Murray
  1. Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, Birmingham and Midland Eye Centre, City Hospital NHS Trust.


    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the commonest ocular complication of AIDS and the prevention of recurrence has been dependent on lifelong maintenance treatment. Recently there has been a dramatic downturn in the number of new cases of CMV retinitis, which has been attributed to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and subsequent improved survival. Whereas paucity of inflammation has been considered to be the hallmark of the ophthalmic manifestations of AIDS, with immune recovery, a new pattern of ophthalmic AIDS has emerged. This is characterised by a heightened inflammatory response and more frequent complications associated with this response--for example, vitritis, cystoid macular oedema. In spite of this, regression of CMV retinitis has been reported, as well as absence of reactivation or progression after withdrawal of anti-CMV maintenance treatment. How long this situation will continue is not known and we remain cautious about the future of CMV retinitis and other opportunistic ocular infections.

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