OBJECTIVE: To explore whether HIV serostatus (HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual (HIV-D) reactivity) and CD4 cell count affect human papillomavirus (HPV) in two groups of women from Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of two groups of women. One group had low numbers of lifetime sex partners (maternal women, n = 258) and were enrolled based on HIV serostatus. The other group had high numbers of sex partners (female sex workers, n = 278) and all consenting self identified sex workers were admitted to this study. We collected epidemiological and clinical data, and cervicovaginal lavage for HPV testing. RESULTS: The groups had different distributions of HIV seroreactivity, but the rates of HPV DNA detection were similar. Most of the HPV DNAs detected in both groups were high risk types. A strong association of high risk HPV DNA and HIV-1 seropositivity was found in both maternal women (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.5 (95% CI 3.2-17.4)) and in sex workers (OR 5.0 (2.1-12.0)). The maternal group also showed an association of high risk HPV DNA detection with HIV-2 (OR 3.7 (1.6-8.5)) and HIV-D (OR 12.7 (4.3-37.5)) that was not observed in the sex workers. In addition, the association of high risk HPV DNA with HIV-1 in the maternal group was independent of low CD4 cell count, while in the sex workers the association depended on CD4 cell counts < or = 500 x 10(6)/l. CONCLUSIONS: We found that an association between HPV and HIV varied depending on the sexual behaviour and CD4 cell count of the population examined.
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