OBJECTIVE: To explore whether HIV types 1 and 2 and CD4 cell count affect cervical neoplasia independent of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women with high or low numbers of sexual partners residing in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: The study population and methods are described in the companion paper. Additional methods include a Papanicolaou smear for cytological diagnosis and statistical analysis. RESULTS: In maternal women, both HIV-1 and high risk HPV were significant independent risk factors for squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 11.0 (95% CI 1.1-112) and 5.4 (1.5-18.8), respectively). Only high levels of HPV DNA in the lavage were associated with SIL (OR 13.2 (3.6-47.8)) in the maternal group. In female sex workers, high risk HPV was significantly associated with SIL (OR 23.7 (4.4-126)); HIV seropositivity was not. Any positive level (high or low amounts) of HPV DNA was significantly associated with SIL in sex workers (ORs 15.9 (3.3-76) and 12.7 (3.6-44), respectively). There was no association of SIL with CD4 cell counts < or = 500 x 10(6)/l in HIV seropositive women from either group. CONCLUSION: HPV or HIV-1 infection independently affect cervical neoplasia in women with low numbers of sex partners.
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