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Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe: legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment
  1. M Domeika1,
  2. A Hallén1,
  3. L Karabanov2,
  4. K Chudomirova3,
  5. F Gruber4,
  6. V Unzeitig5,
  7. A Pöder6,
  8. J Deak7,
  9. I Jakobsone8,
  10. G Lapinskaite9,
  11. Z Dajek10,
  12. V Akovbian11,
  13. M Gomberg12,
  14. A Khryanin13,
  15. A Savitcheva14,
  16. I Takac15,
  17. L Glazkova16,
  18. N Vinograd17,
  19. M Nedeljkovic18
  1. 1Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  2. 2Department of Dermatovenereol, Bielorussian State Inst for Advanced Medical Studies, Minsk, Bielorussia
  3. 3Department of Dermatovenereol, Plovdiv Medical Inst, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  4. 4Department of Dermatovenereology, Clinical Hospital Center of Medical School of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
  5. 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Masaryk University, Brbo, Czech Republic
  6. 6Clinic of Dermatology, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia
  7. 7Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged, Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical and Pharmaceutical Center, Szeged, Hungary
  8. 8Latvian Center for STD, Riga, Latvia
  9. 9Department of Dermatovenereology, Vilnius University Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania
  10. 10Institute of Venereology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  11. 11STI Department, Central Institute of Skin and Venereal Disease, Moscow, Russia
  12. 12Laboratory of Viral Urogenital Infections, Central Institute of Skin and Venereal Disease, Moscow, Russia
  13. 13Department of Dermatovenereology, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Novosibirsk, Russia
  14. 14Laboratory of Urogenital Infections, Otto Inst of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St Petersburg, Russia
  15. 15Department of Dermatovenereology, Ural Medical Academy, Ekaterinburg, Russia
  16. 16Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maribor Teaching Hospital, Maribor, Slovenia
  17. 17Department of Epidemiology, State Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
  18. 18Institute of Microbiol Immunol, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia
  1. Correspondence to:
 Marius Domeika, Department of Medical Sciences, Unit of Clinical Bacteriology, Box 552, 751 22 Uppsala, Sweden;


Objectives: Knowledge concerning genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe is scarce. Data on the legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection have never been collected, summarised, and presented to the international scientific community. The aim of this study was to present the current situation on the main aspects of chlamydial infections in the countries of eastern Europe.

Methods: Written questionnaires concerning legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection were distributed among national STI operating administrators as well as researchers who had presented papers at earlier meetings of European chlamydia or STI societies.

Results: Most of the countries have not legalised reporting of chlamydial infections and in those who have done so, the quality of the reporting system is poor. Contact tracing is mostly done on a voluntary basis. Reported chlamydia incidence varies from 21 to 276 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most commonly used diagnostic test remains the direct immunofluorescence test; however, some tendencies towards nucleic acid amplification are in evidence. Diagnostic services are paid for by the patient himself, while treatment in many countries is partially or completely covered by public insurance.

Conclusions: This is the first report summarising data concerning the situation on C trachomatis infections in eastern Europe. The reporting system and diagnosis of C trachomatis infections remain suboptimal, which allows neither control of the epidemiological situation nor optimal treatment of the patients. The most urgent work currently necessary is the education of professionals and the general population.

  • eastern Europe
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • epidemiology

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  • Conflict of interest: there is no conflict of interest.