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Phase specific strategies for the prevention, control, and elimination of sexually transmitted diseases: background country profile, England and Wales
  1. A M Johnson1,
  2. K A Fenton2,
  3. C Mercer1
  1. 1Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Royal Free and University College London Medical School, London WC1, UK
  2. 2HIV/STI Division, Public Health Laboratory Service, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London NW9, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 Professor Anne Johnson, Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Departments of Primary Care and Population Sciences and Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Mortimer Market Centre, off Capper Street, London WC1E 6AU, UK;


The development of non-invasive tests for evidence of current or past infection offers new prospects for carrying out population studies of sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemiology, and for improved understanding of the behavioural and biological determinants of STI transmission. In turn this may guide screening, treatment, and behavioural interventions. The evidence base for many interventions is sparse and randomised trials of interventions are in their early days. Increasingly, linked behavioural and biological outcomes will be required to measure effectiveness. Integrated efforts are needed at a national level to achieve greater coordination between STD, HIV, and contraception services, school education, and broader public education and programmes.

  • sexually transmitted disease
  • prevention
  • CDSC, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre
  • GUM, genitourinary medicine
  • HAART, Highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • NATSAL, British national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles 1990

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  • * Please see author's note.