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HAART is able to suppress HIV replication and restore specific immune responses. We and others1,2 have demonstrated that previously untreatable progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) may improve and has very rarely been reported following HAART. However, CD4+ increase is also associated with inflammatory reactions to previously silent infectious agents, as well as aberrant immune phenomena.3
A 27 year old HIV/HCV (hepatitis C virus) patient was observed in 1997 with a CD4+ count of 357 cells ×106/l and HIV-RNA >1 000 000 copies/ml. HAART was started and maintained until 1999 when it was stopped at the patient’s request. On October 2001 he returned asymptomatic, with a CD4+ cell count of …