Objectives: To determine the prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types in Nicaraguan women with histological proved pre-neoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions, and to assess its potential impact on preventive strategies.
Methods: 206 women with histopathological confirmed cervical lesions (CIN I or worse) were screened for HPV DNA on a liquid based cytology sample, using an HPV short fragment polymerase chain reaction based assay. HPV positive samples were genotyped with a reverse hybridisation line probe assay (Lipa). HPV negative samples were re-analysed using type specific real time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Of all lesions CIN II or worse, 12% tested negative. Prevalence of high risk HPV increased from 48.1% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I) to 94.7% in invasive squamous cervical carcinoma (SCC). The most prevalent high risk HPV types were, in order of prevalence rate, HPV 16, 58, 31 and 52. HPV 16 and/or HPV 31 were present in 63.2% of SCC cases.
Conclusion: Targeting HPV 16 and 31 with prophylactic vaccines could possibly have an important impact on the incidence of invasive cervical carcinoma in Nicaragua. Further research is needed to define the oncogenic potential of other high prevalent HPV genotypes. Meanwhile, primary prevention and cervical cancer screening programmes should be optimised.
- CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
- HPV, human papillomavirus
- PCR, polymerase chain reaction
- SCC, squamous cervical carcinoma
- cervical cancer
- women’s health
- human papillomavirus
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Competing interests: none.
The study was approved by the ethics committees of the UNAN-Managua and of the University Hospital of Ghent.