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Improved measures of racial mixing among men who have sex with men using Newman's assortativity coefficient
  1. Daniel D Bohl1,
  2. Willi McFarland2,
  3. H Fisher Raymond2
  1. 1School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
  2. 2San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to H Fisher Raymond, San Francisco Department of Public Health, 25 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 500, San Francisco, CA 94102-6033, USA; hfisher.raymond{at}


Objective To measure sexual mixing among racial groups of men who have sex with men (MSM).

Methods The authors explore its potential impacts, making two methodological advancements over previous work. First, the authors pioneer the use of Newman's assortativity coefficient to characterise mixing among MSM. Second, the authors examine mixing at the level of primary ties and at the level of secondary ties.

Results Results from the 1142-participant sample suggest that MSM are highly assortative by all races at the secondary level.

Conclusions Networks of MSM may be more tightly contracted around racial groupings than previously supposed. These groupings may lead to increased HIV transmission in certain racial groups.

  • Men who have sex with men
  • sexual mixing
  • race/ethnicity
  • assortativity
  • HIV
  • herpes
  • men
  • epidemiology
  • AIDS
  • HSV-2
  • street youth
  • homosexual
  • sexual behaviour
  • risk behaviours

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  • Funding This study was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant number: R01MH077509).

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval University of California, San Francisco CHR.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.