Randomised controlled trial results can provide the scientific rationale for implementing new biomedical HIV prevention strategies but are not sufficient. Generalisability of trial findings, good participatory trial conduct, acceptability studies, demand creation, costing and impact studies, human resource constraints, supply chain management, risk compensation, gender implications, opportunity costs, regulatory issues, and sociopolitical considerations also influence policy makers and programme planners considering adoption and implementation. Knowledge translation examples drawn from male circumcision, tenofovir gel microbicide, and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis will be presented to illustrate the evidence to be considered in scale-up.
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