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HIV testing and care systems focused on sexually transmitted HIV in China
  1. Joseph D Tucker1,2,
  2. Frank Y Wong3,
  3. Eric J Nehl3,
  4. Fujie Zhang4,5
  1. 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  2. 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, UNC Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
  3. 3Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, USA
  4. 4National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
  5. 5Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical Medical University, Beijing, China
  1. Correspondence to Joseph D Tucker, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, GRJ-504, Boston, MA, 02139 USA; jtucker4{at}


Background Over three-quarters of new HIV infections in China during 2009 were estimated to be from sexual transmission. Over half of those living with HIV do not know their serostatus and identifying and treating individuals with sexually transmitted HIV infection has been challenging.

Objective This global assessment explores Chinese systems for detecting and treating those with HIV infection with a particular focus on groups at increased risk of sexually transmitted HIV.

Methods Published literature, grey sources and non-governmental reports were reviewed to describe HIV testing and care systems in China.

Results HIV testing and care in China involve several parallel health systems and have been largely successful in reaching large numbers of vulnerable individuals. Provider-initiated testing and counselling has been more effective than voluntary counselling and testing programmes for expanding HIV testing efforts in China. Individuals with sexually transmitted HIV infection are underrepresented in the antiretroviral care system compared with other high-risk groups.

Conclusions Comprehensive HIV testing and care bring together a number of Chinese health systems, but there are still gaps and challenges. Research and programmes focused on HIV testing and care for those with increased sexual risk are needed.

  • AIDS
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • China
  • chlamydia
  • epidemiology
  • HBV
  • HCV
  • health advice
  • health service research
  • health systems
  • hepatitis
  • HIV
  • information technology
  • partner notification
  • policy
  • primary HIV infection
  • sexual health
  • social
  • sociology
  • social/policy perspectives
  • STD
  • STD clinic

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  • Funding Financial support for this research came from an NIH Fogarty K01 award (US NIH 1K01TW008200-01A1), the UNC Fogarty AIDS International Research and Training Program (NIH FIC D43 TW01039), the UNC Social Science Research on HIV/AIDS in China (NIH NICHD R24 HD056670-01), the UNC Center for AIDS Research and the Emory Center for AIDS Research (P30 AI050409).

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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