Background Over three-quarters of new HIV infections in China during 2009 were estimated to be from sexual transmission. Over half of those living with HIV do not know their serostatus and identifying and treating individuals with sexually transmitted HIV infection has been challenging.
Objective This global assessment explores Chinese systems for detecting and treating those with HIV infection with a particular focus on groups at increased risk of sexually transmitted HIV.
Methods Published literature, grey sources and non-governmental reports were reviewed to describe HIV testing and care systems in China.
Results HIV testing and care in China involve several parallel health systems and have been largely successful in reaching large numbers of vulnerable individuals. Provider-initiated testing and counselling has been more effective than voluntary counselling and testing programmes for expanding HIV testing efforts in China. Individuals with sexually transmitted HIV infection are underrepresented in the antiretroviral care system compared with other high-risk groups.
Conclusions Comprehensive HIV testing and care bring together a number of Chinese health systems, but there are still gaps and challenges. Research and programmes focused on HIV testing and care for those with increased sexual risk are needed.
- antiretroviral therapy
- health advice
- health service research
- health systems
- information technology
- partner notification
- primary HIV infection
- sexual health
- social/policy perspectives
- STD clinic
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