Introduction Although survival has been improved in HIV-infected patients, the risk for atherosclerotic diseases has increased.
Objective To evaluate the effect of HIV infection on atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients.
Subjects and methods Study design: observational, prospective case-control study, including 124 consecutive male and female HIV-infected patients, older than 18 year (HIV-group). Results were compared with 130 healthy volunteers of same gender and age (Control-group).
Study protocol: Clinical evaluation followed by ultrasound exam of carotids for carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) measurement. The presence of atherosclerosis plaques was recorded.
Statistical analysis: Chi-square test and linear regression analysis. Significance level: p < 0.05.
Result Age (HIV-group:43.87 ± 11.31 vs Control-group: 42.9 ± 11.54, p = 0.324) was similar in both groups. There was 52.00% male in HIV-group and 54.00% in Control group. Atherosclerotic plaque was identified in 30.64% of the patients HIV and in 3.84% of the control (p < 0.001). Surprisingly, 22% of HIV-infected patients, classified at low risk score Freminghan, presented plaques in the carotid arteries.
For controls, there was an increase of 0.068 mm in the CIMT for each one-year increase in age (OR: 1.068; CI95%: 1.03–1.107; p < 0.001). The presence of HIV increased this increment for tenfold (OR: 10.7; CI95%: 3.58–31.76; p < 0.001). There was an interaction between age and HIV-infection to increase CIMT (p < 0.001).
Conclusions Our results indicated that: 1- patients with HIV are at higher risk for atherosclerosis in the carotid artery than control individuals. 2- The effect of age on risk for atherosclerosis occurs in both groups, however it is more remarkable in HIV-infected patients.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.