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Original article
Cross-sectional study of genital carcinogenic HPV infections in Paramaribo, Suriname: prevalence and determinants in an ethnically diverse population of women in a pre-vaccination era
  1. Daan T Geraets1,
  2. Antoon W Grünberg2,
  3. Jannie J van der Helm3,4,
  4. Maarten F Schim van der Loeff4,5,
  5. Koen D Quint1,6,
  6. Leslie O A Sabajo7,
  7. Henry J C de Vries3,5,8
  1. 1DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Rijswijk, The Netherlands
  2. 2Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Paramaribo, Suriname
  3. 3STI Outpatient Clinic, Public Health Service Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  4. 4Department of Research, Public Health Service Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  5. 5Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  6. 6Department of Dermatology LUMC, University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands
  7. 7Dermatological Service, Ministry of Health, Paramaribo, Suriname
  8. 8Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Daan T Geraets, DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Visseringlaan 25, Rijswijk 2288 ER, The Netherlands; daan.geraets{at}


Objective Cervical cancer is caused by carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination in Suriname, we performed a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of and determinants for genital carcinogenic HPV infections.

Methods Women were recruited at a family planning (FP) clinic and a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic. Vaginal swabs were used for HPV genotyping by the SPF10 PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 system. Logistic regression was used to identify determinants for carcinogenic HPV infection.

Results The prevalence of any HPV was 54.2% and of carcinogenic HPV was 27.9% among 813 women attending the FP clinic. Among the 188 women attending the STI clinic, the prevalence of any HPV (76.1%) and of carcinogenic HPV (40.4%) was significantly higher. HPV52 was the most prevalent genotype in both clinics. The prevalence of HPV16 and/or 18 was 6.4% in the FP clinic and 12.2% in the STI clinic. The following determinants were independently associated with carcinogenic HPV infection among women visiting the FP clinic: ≥2 recent partners (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.06), Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.70), disassortative ethnic sexual mixing (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.99) and ethnic group (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.85 for Creole and OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62 for mixed ethnicity, both compared with Hindustani). No independent determinants were found among women visiting the STI clinic.

Conclusions Carcinogenic HPV is highly prevalent among women in Suriname, and not equally distributed among ethnic groups. These data provide a baseline to assess possible shifts in the prevalence of HPV genotypes following vaccination.

  • Cervical Neoplasia
  • Chlamydia Infection
  • HPV
  • Epidemiology (Clinical)

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