Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Effectiveness of harm reduction education on decreasing risky-behaviour among injecting drug users in Egypt
  1. Ali Ghaddar1,2,
  2. Ayman Ghaly3
  1. 1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Lebanese International University—Beirut Campus, Beirut, Lebanon
  2. 2 Department of Epidemiology, Observatory of Public Policies and Health, Beirut, Lebanon
  3. 3 Egyptian Development & Human Rights Center, Cairo, Egypt
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ali Ghaddar, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Lebanese International University—Beirut Campus, Mseitbeh Beirut, Block B, 2nd floor, Beirut 03690, Lebanon; ali.ghaddar{at}

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

HIV in the MENA region is a rising health concern with reported emergent HIV epidemics concentrated among injecting drug users (IDU) and men having sex with men (MSM).1 Previous studies described various risky injection and sexual practices persisting among IDUs in Egypt including the frequent utilisation of used needles or syringes, the shared use of needles/syringes with one or more persons and unprotected sexual relationships with other at-risk for HIV networks …

View Full Text


  • Contributors AG developed the epidemiological study design, performed data analysis and drafted the paper. AGh developed and coordinated the intervention, performed data collection and data entry and drafted the paper.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, Lebanese International University, LIU/09/14.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.