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A discrete choice experiment to assess people living with HIV's (PLWHIV's) preferences for GP or HIV clinic appointments
  1. A H Miners1,
  2. C D Llewellyn2,
  3. V L Cooper3,
  4. E Youssef2,
  5. A J Pollard2,
  6. M Lagarde1,
  7. C Sabin4,
  8. E Nixon3,
  9. M Sachikonye5,
  10. N Perry6,
  11. M Fisher3
  1. 1Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  2. 2Division of Public Health and Primary Care, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK
  3. 3Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK
  4. 4HIV Epidemiology & Biostatistics Group, University College London, London, UK
  5. 5UK Community Advisory Board Country (UKCAB), London, UK
  6. 6Brighton and Sussex Clinical Trials Unit, Brighton and Sussex Medical Schools, Brighton, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr A H Miners, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London WC1 9SY, UK; alec.miners{at}


Objectives To understand which aspects of general practitioner (GP) and HIV clinic appointments people living with HIV (PLWHIV) most value when seeking advice for new health problems.

Methods A discrete choice experiment using a convenience sample of people diagnosed with HIV. Participants were recruited from 14 general HIV clinics in the South East of England between December 2014 and April 2015. ORs were calculated using conditional logit (CLOGIT) and latent class models (LCMs).

Results A total of 1106 questionnaires were returned. Most participants were male (85%), white (74%) and were men who have sex with men (69%). The CLOGIT analysis showed people particularly valued shorter appointment waiting times (ORs between 1.52 and 3.62, p<0.001 in all instances). The LCM analysis showed there were two distinct classes, with 59% and 41% of respondents likely to be in each. The first class generally preferred GP to HIV clinic appointments and particularly valued ‘being seen quickly’. For example, they had strong preferences for shorter appointment waiting times and longer GP opening hours. People in the second class also valued shorter waiting times, but they had a strong general preference for HIV clinic rather than GP appointments.

Conclusions PLWHIV value many aspects of care for new health problems, particularly short appointment waiting times. However, they appear split in their general willingness to engage with GPs.

  • HIV

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  • Handling editor Jackie A Cassell

  • Contributors AHM, CDL, VLC and MF had the original idea for the study. AHM generated the DCE designs and undertook the statistical analysis. CDL, MS and AJP designed and ran the focus groups and undertook the qualitative analysis. VLC, EY and AJP were responsible for data collection. All authors inputted into the overall study design and the manuscript writing.

  • Funding This paper presents independent research commissioned by the UKs National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) Programme (Grant Reference Number PB-PG-0711-25113). The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. Service support costs were provided by the NIHR Primary Care Research Network-South East.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval was gained from Newcastle and North Tyneside Ethics Committee Ref: 14/NE/1193.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement All the data are available on request.

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