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A double-edged sword: does highly active antiretroviral therapy contribute to syphilis incidence by impairing immunity to Treponema pallidum?
  1. Michael L Rekart1,
  2. Wilfred Ndifon2,
  3. Robert C Brunham3,
  4. Jonathan Dushoff4,
  5. Sang Woo Park5,
  6. Sanjana Rawat6,
  7. Caroline E Cameron6
  1. 1 School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  2. 2 African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Muizenberg, Cape Town, South Africa
  3. 3 Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  4. 4 Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  5. 5 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  6. 6 Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Michael L Rekart, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Rm. 147, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3; Michael.rekart{at}gmail.com

Footnotes

  • Handling editor Jackie A Cassell

  • Contributors MLR: conceptualised the original hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, drafted a significant portion of the manuscript and reviewed the rest for intellectual content, coordinated coauthor input, approved the final version, agrees to be the corresponding author and to be accountable for all aspects of the work. WN: helped refine the hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, drafted a significant portion of the manuscript, contributed significantly to the modelling presentation, reviewed the manuscript for intellectual content, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. RCB: helped refine the hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, revised the manuscript critically for intellectual content, contributed to the modelling section, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. JD: helped refine the hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, revised portions of the manuscript and reviewed the rest for intellectual content, drafted the section on mathematical modelling, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. SWP: developed and fine-tuned the model, reviewed the manuscript for intellectual content, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. SR: conducted the initial literature review and analysed the results, reviewed the manuscript for intellectual content, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. CEC: helped refine the hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, drafted a significant portion of the manuscript and reviewed the rest for intellectual content, contributed to the modelling, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

  • Funding This work was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers R01AI015334 and R01AI123196 (CEC). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Footnotes

  • Handling editor Jackie A Cassell

  • Contributors MLR: conceptualised the original hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, drafted a significant portion of the manuscript and reviewed the rest for intellectual content, coordinated coauthor input, approved the final version, agrees to be the corresponding author and to be accountable for all aspects of the work. WN: helped refine the hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, drafted a significant portion of the manuscript, contributed significantly to the modelling presentation, reviewed the manuscript for intellectual content, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. RCB: helped refine the hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, revised the manuscript critically for intellectual content, contributed to the modelling section, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. JD: helped refine the hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, revised portions of the manuscript and reviewed the rest for intellectual content, drafted the section on mathematical modelling, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. SWP: developed and fine-tuned the model, reviewed the manuscript for intellectual content, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. SR: conducted the initial literature review and analysed the results, reviewed the manuscript for intellectual content, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. CEC: helped refine the hypothesis, analysed and interpreted the literature, drafted a significant portion of the manuscript and reviewed the rest for intellectual content, contributed to the modelling, approved the final version and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

  • Funding This work was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers R01AI015334 and R01AI123196 (CEC). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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