Introduction High prevalence of anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) have been reported among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. Regular rectal CT and NG screening have been recommended in the United States and other countries, but little data exists on rectal and oropharyngeal CT and NG among Chinese MSM. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CT and NG in different anatomic sites among Chinese MSM.
Methods Participants were enrolled in a free sexually transmitted diseases (STD) screening program if they self-reported MSM status and had never previously received rectal or oral STD screening. Exclusion criteria included taking antibiotics in the past month. Sociodemographic information, sexual history, and medical history data were collected before taking any samples. Samples were obtained from the rectum, oropharynx, and urethra according to sexual exposure sites. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) were used to detect CT and NG.
Results 380 MSM were enrolled between January 2015 and December 2016. The mean age of participants was 29.79±9.10 years, and 18.2% (69/380) were married. Anorectal CT was detected in 18.6% (44/237) of samples and anorectal NG in 10.1% (24/237). Urethral CT was detected in 12.3% (27/219) of samples, and urethral NG in 7.8% (17/219) of samples as well. Of 255 oropharyngeal samples, CT was detected in only 2.0% (5/255) and NG in 5.1% (13/255). Two participants (1.5%,2/132) were infected with CT and 1 (0.8%, 1/132) with NG at both rectal and urethral sites, three participants (1.4%,3/208) were infected with CT and 8 (3.9%, 8/208) with NG at both rectal and oropharyngeal anatomic sites. None participants were infected at three anatomic sites.
Conclusion Our findings show that the prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections are high among Chinese MSM, efforts to control CT and NG infection among this key population is of significant public health importance.